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Neelam Maorya
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Dharmendra Gour
Madhya Pradesh (MP) literally "Central Province") is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore. Nicknamed the "heart of India" due to its geographical location in India, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million inhabitants, it is the sixth largest state in India by population. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest.

The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avanti) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India, including the Mauryans, Gupta Empire,Harshavardhana, then Rajput kings of Paramara, Chandelas, Bundela, Tomaras, subsequently by the Mughals and later by the Marathas. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and north-eastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state with Bhopal as its capital; the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the then Bombay State. This state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made a separate state.

Madhya Pradesh is home to a large tribal population, who have been largely cut off from the mainstream development. This makes Madhya Pradesh one of the least developed states in India, with an HDI (Human Development Index) value of 0.375 (2011), which is well below the national average.[3] The state's per-capita gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) is the fourth lowest in the country (2010–11).[4] MP is also the lowest-ranked state on the India State Hunger Index. In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average.[5] Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under the forest cover. Its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in the year 2010–11.[6]

Main article: History of Madhya Pradesh
Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited since the Middle Pleistocene era, around 500,000 years ago.[7] Painted pottery dated to the later mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters.[8] Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture (2100–1800 BCE) and Malwa culture (1700–1500 BCE) have been discovered in the Western part of the state.[9]

Mesolithic Rock painting, Bhimbetka, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The city of Ujjain arose as a major center in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti Kingdom and Avantihedi, Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada has also been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh.

Stupa no. 3, Sanchi
Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the Maurya empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial center of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports. The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.

Dulhadeo Temple, Khajuraho
The south Indian king Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE.[10]

Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the Vakatakas. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states. The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. Later, Harsha (c. 590—647) ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century.[11] When the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara.[12]

Shiva Temple in Bhojpur
The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa.[13] The Paramara king Bhoja (c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Gondwana and Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara Rajput kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.

The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531. In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently to Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the Gwalior Fort during 1553–56. After his defeat in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 to Akbar, most of Madhya Pradesh came under the Mughal rule. Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy.

The Mughal control weakened considerably after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. Between 1720 and 1760, the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, resulting in the establishment of semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Peshwa of Pune: the Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, Puars ruled Dewas and Dhar, the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal-Gondwana area, while the Scindias of Gwalior controlled the northern parts of the state. The most notable Maratha rulers of the region were Mahadji Shinde, Ahilyabai Holkar and Yashwantrao Holkar. Besides these, there were several other small states, including Bhopal, Orchha, and Rewa. The Bhopal state, which paid tribute to both the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad, was founded by Dost Mohammed Khan, a former General in the Mughal army.

After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the British took control of the entire region. All the sovereign states in the region became princely states of British India, governed by the Central India Agency. The Mahakoshal region became a British province: the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1861, the British merged the Nagpur Province with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces.

During the 1857 uprising, rebellions happened in the northern parts of the state, led by leaders like Tatya Tope. However, these were crushed by the British and the princes loyal to them. The state witnessed a number of anti-British activities and protests during the Indian independence movement.[14] Several notable leaders such as Chandra Shekhar Azad, B. R. Ambedkar, Shankar Dayal Sharma and Atal Bihari Vajpayee were born in what is now Madhya Pradesh.

After the independence of India, Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state. In November 2000, as part of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, the southeastern portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh.

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Physical map of Madhya Pradesh
฿===Location in India=== Madhya Pradesh literally means "Central Province", and is located in the geographic heart of India, between latitude 21.2°N-26.87°N and longitude 74°02'-82°49' E. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north and south of India. The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.

Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh
Gujarat Chhattisgarh
Madhya Pradesh

Maharashtra Maharashtra Chhattisgarh

Pachmarhi valley
Madhya Pradesh has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India, it has a hot dry summer (April–June), followed by monsoon rains (July–September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 1,370 mm (53.9 in). It decreases from west to east because monsoon wind moves from west to east and drained clouds in western part takes less quantity of water vapours with them to eastern part. The south-western districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and north-western districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less.


Marble Rocks at Bhedaghat near Jabalpur
According to the 2011 figures, the recorded forest area of the state is 94,689 km2 (36,560 sq mi) constituting 30.72% of the geographical area of the state.[15] It constitutes 12.30% of the forest area of India. Legally this area has been classified into "Reserved Forest" (65.3%), "Protected Forest" (32.84%) and "Unclassified Forest" (0.18%). Per capita forest area is 2,400 m2 (0.59 acre) as against the national average of 700 m2 (0.17 acre). The forest cover is less dense in the northern and western parts of the state, which contain the major urban centres. Variability in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state.

The major types of soils found in the state are:

Black Soil, most predominantly in Malwa region
Red and yellow soil, in Baghelkhand region
Alluvial Soil, in Northern Madhya Pradesh
Laterite Soil, in highland areas
Mixed Soil, in parts of Gwalior and Chambal division
Flora and fauna[edit]
Main article: Flora and fauna of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh home to 11 National Parks, including Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, and Pench National Park.[16] There are also a number of natural preserves, including Amarkantak, Bagh Caves, Balaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot and Tamia. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Satpura Range, Amarkantak biosphere reserve and panna national park are three of the 18 biosphere reserves in India.

Langur monkey (Semnopithecus dussumieri), Orchha

Tigress with cubs in Kanha Tiger reserve

Tickell's Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae. Bandhavgarh National Park

Vultures in the nest, Orchha

Male nilgais fighting, Lakeshwari, Gwalior district
Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and Satpura National Park are managed as project tiger areas. Sardarpur sanctuary in Dhar and Sailana are managed for conservation of kharmor or Lesser Florican. Ghatigaon sanctuary is managed for Great Indian Bustard or Son Chiriya. The National Chambal Sanctuary is managed for conservation of gharial and mugger, River dolphin, smooth-coated otter and a number of turtle species. Ken-gharial and Son-gharial sanctuaries are managed for conservation of gharial and mugger. Barasingha is the state animal and Dudhraj is the state bird of Madhya Pradesh.

Based on composition, the teak and sal forests are the important forest formations in the state. Bamboo-bearing areas are widely distributed in the state.


The Bansagar Dam on Sone River

Indirasagar Dam on the Narmada river
The Narmada is the longest river in Madhya Pradesh. It flows westward through a rift valley, with the Vindhya ranges sprawling along its northern bank and the Satpura range of mountains along the southern. Its tributaries include the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Denwa and the Sonbhardra rivers. The Tapti River runs parallel to Narmada, and also flows through a rift valley. The Narmada–Tapti systems carry and enormous volume of water and provide drainage for almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh.

The Vindhyas form the southern boundary of the Ganges basin, with the western part of the Ganges basin draining into the Yamuna and the eastern part directly into the Ganges itself. All the rivers, which drain into the Ganges, flow from south to north, with the Chambal, Shipra, Kali Sindh, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers being the main tributaries of the Yamuna. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganges basin consists of the Son, the Tons and the Rihand Rivers. Son, which arises in the Maikal hills around Amarkantak, is the largest tributary that goes into the Ganges on the south bank and that does not arise from the Himalayas. Son and its tributaries contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into the Ganges, because the north bank tributaries are all snow fed. The forests in their basins are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of Madhya Pradesh.

After the formation of Chhattisgarh State, the major portion of Mahanadi basin now lies in Chhattisgarh. Presently, only 154 km² basin area of Hasdeo River in Anuppur District lies in Madhya Pradesh.

The Satpuras, in the Gawilgarh and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a watershed, which is south facing. The Wainganga, the Wardha, the Pench, the Kanhan and Penganga rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari river system. The Godavari basin consists of sub-tropical, semi-moist forests, mainly in the valley of the Indrawati. There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in development, including the Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects.

Madhya Pradesh is divided into the following agro-climatic zones:

Kaimur Plateau and Satpura Hills
Vindhyan Plateau (Hills)
Narmada valley
Wainganga valley
Gird (Gwalior) Region
Bundelkhand Region
Satpura Plateau (Hills)
Malwa Plateau
Nimar Plateau
Jhabua Hills
[show]Population Growth
The population of Madhya Pradesh consists of a number of ethnic groups and tribes, castes and communities, including the indigenous tribals and relatively more recent migrants from other states. The scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the State. The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia (or Bhariya), Halba, Kaul, Mariya, Malto and Sahariya. Dhar, Jhabua and Mandla districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone, Chhindwara, Seoni, Sidhi and Shahdol districts 30–50 percent population is of tribes. According to the 2001 census, the population of the tribals in Madhya Pradesh was 12,233,000, constituting 20.27% of the total population. There were 46 recognised Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as "Special Primitive Tribal Groups" in the State.[18]

Children in Raisen district, Bhil tribe

A tribal woman prepares breakfast in Bandhavgarh

Shepherds in Chambal

A young farmer in Umaria district

Young Baiga women
Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh has been largely cut off from the mainstream of development. Madhya Pradesh ranks very low on the Human Development Index value of 0.375 (2011), which is below the national average.[3] According to the India State Hunger Index (2008) compiled by the International Food Policy Research Institute, the malnutrition situation in Madhya Pradesh was "extremely alarming", receiving a severity rating between Ethiopia and Chad.[19] The state ranks is also the worst performer in India, when it comes to female foeticides.[20]

See also: Tribals in Madhya Pradesh
The official language of the state is Hindi.. In addition to standard Hindi, Marathi is spoken by a substantial number of the population since the state was home to several important and prestigious Maratha states.The state in fact has highest concentration of Marathi people outside Maharashtra .several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi, and by others to be distinct but related languages. Among these dialects are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in Bundelkhand, and Bagheli in Bagelkhand and the southeast. Each of these languages or dialects has dialects of its own. Other languages include Telugu, Bhilodi (Bhili), Gondi, Korku, Kalto (Nahali), and Nihali (Nahali), all spoken by tribal groups.


A man playing flute in Orchha, with a white tilak on his forehead, and holy saffron-coloured clothes.

Sand sculpture by Sudarshan Pattnaik at Bandrabhan near Hoshangabad
Three sites in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: the Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986) including Devi Jagadambi temple, Rewa, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989) and the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003). Other architecturally significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarh, Amarkantak, Asirgarh, Bandhavgarh, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Vidisha, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar, Gwalior, Indore, Burhanpur, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Shivpuri, Sonagiri, Mandla and Ujjain.

Madhya Pradesh is noted for its classical and folk music. Some of the noted Hindustani classical music gharanas in Madhya Pradesh include the Maihar gharana, the Gwalior gharana and Senia gharana. Two of the medieval India's most noted singers, Tansen and Baiju Bawra, were born near Gwalior in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Noted Dhrupad exponents Aminuddin Dagar (Indore), Gundecha Brothers (Ujjain) and Uday Bhawalkar (Ujjain) were also born in present-day Madhya Pradesh.[21] The birthplaces of noted playback singers Kishore Kumar (Khandwa) and Lata Mangeshkar (Indore) are also located in MP. The local styles of folk singing include Faga, Bhartahari, Sanja geet, Bhopa, Kalbelia, Bhat/Bhand/Charan, Vasdeva, Videsia, Kalgi Turra, Nirgunia, Alha, Pandwani Gayan and Garba Garbi Govalan.[citation needed]

The major folk dances of MP are Badhai, Rai, Saira, Jawara, Sher, Akhara, Shaitan, baredi, karma, kathi, Sua, Saila, Mauni, Dhimrai, kanara, Bhagoria, Dashera, dadariya, Duldul Ghodi, Lehgi ghodi, Fefriya, Mandlya, danda, Ada-khada, dadel, Matki, birha, Ahirai, pardhauni, Vilma, Dadar and Kalsa.[citation needed]

According to census of 2011, 92% of the MP residents followed Hinduism, while others are Muslim (6.2%), Jain (0.9%), Christians (0.3%), Buddhists (0.3%), and Sikhs (0.2%).[22] The modern-day gurus Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (founder of Transcendental Meditation), Rajneesh (Osho) and Nirmala Srivastava (founder of Sahaja Yoga) were born in the present-day Madhya Pradesh.

Religions in Chhattisgarh[23]
Religion Percent




Woman harvesting wheat, Raisen district

The Matang truck was completely developed and manufactured by Vehicle Factory Jabalpur.
Main article: Economy of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh's gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) for 2010–11 was INR 2,600 billion (approximately US$ 47,120,000,000). The per-capita figure was US$ 583: the fourth lowest in the country.[4] Between 1999 and 2008, the annualised growth rate of the state was very low: 3.5%.[24] Subsequently, the state's GDP growth rate has improved significantly, rising to 8% during 2010–11 and 12% during 2011–12.[25]

The state has an agrarian economy.[25] The major crops of Madhya Pradesh are wheat, soybean, gram, sugarcane, rice, maize, cotton, rapeseed, mustard and arhar.[26] Minor Forest Produce (MFP), such as tendu leaves used to roll beedi, sal seed, teak seed, and lak also contribute to state's rural economy.

Madhya Pradesh has 5 Special Economic Zones (SEZs): 3 IT/ITeS (Indore, Gwalior), 1 mineral-based (Jabalpur) and 1 agro-based (Jabalpur). In October 2011, approval was given to 14 proposed SEZs, out of which 10 were IT/ITeS-based.[26] Indore is the major commercial center of the state. Because of the state's central location, a number of consumer goods companies have established manufacturing bases in MP.[26]

The state has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. Other major mineral reserves include those of coal, coalbed methane, manganese and dolomite.[26]

Madhya Pradesh has 6 Ordnance Factories, 4 of which are located at Jabalpur (Vehicle Factory, Grey Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory, Ordnance Factory Khamaria) and one each at Katni and Itarsi. The factories are run by the Ordnance Factories Board, and manufacture a variety of products for the Indian Armed Forces.

The state's tourism industry is growing, fuelled by wildlife tourism and a number of places of historical and religious significance. Sanchi and Khajuraho are frequented by external tourists. Besides the major cities, Bhedaghat, Bhimbetka, Bhojpur, Maheshwar, Mandu, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Kanha and Ujjain are the other popular tourist destinations.

Power generation in MP (March 2011)[26]
Power type Capacity (MW)
The state has a total installed power generation capacity of 8,381.3 MW (March 2011), most of which is under the control of the state and the central governments.[26]

Road network of Madhya Pradesh[26]
Road type Length (in km)
National Highways
State Highways
Major District Roads
Bus and train services cover most of Madhya Pradesh. The 99,043 km long road network of the state includes 20 national highways.[26] A 4,948 km long rail network criss-crosses the state, with Jabalpur serving as headquarters for the West Central Railway Zone of the Indian Railways. The Central Railway and the Western Railway also cover parts of the state. The state has a total of 20 major railway junctions. The major inter-state bus terminals are located in Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior and Jabalpur. More than 2000 buses are conducted daily from these four cities. The intra-city transit systems mostly consist of buses, private autos and taxis.

The state does not have a coastline. Most of the sea trade happens through the Kandla and Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva) in the neighbouring states, which are well-connected to MP by road and rail networks.

The Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport at Indore is the busiest airport in Madhya Pradesh. Raja Bhoj Airport in Bhopal, Jabalpur Airport, Gwalior Airport and Khajuraho Airport also have scheduled commercial passenger services. Besides these, minor airstrips are located at Ujjain, Khandwa, Rewa and Satna .

Ventura Airconnect is nation's first dedicated Intra-State Airline Operation,starting with 2 Cessna Grand Caravan, the latest generation full glass cockpit commuter Aircraft. Connecting Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior and Jabalpur to begin with and many more destinations will be added in future. The target is to connect almost all cities with the state capital, having airports which are not linked by air on a pan India basis in shortest possible time, thereby becoming the only dedicated Intra-State Operator with safety being of utmost importance. Thus saving on time,providing highest level of customer satisfaction with unmatched convenience and comfort. These connections provide easy accessibility to the cities with tourist interest places - Bhandavgarh, Kanha, Umaria - and also other business potential cities.

The state has 51 district hospitals, 333 community health centres, 1,157 primary health centres and 8,867 sub-centres.[27]

The urban infrastructure has improved considerably in the past decade. 22 projects costing above $500 million have been sanctioned under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission for the development of Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur and Ujjain.[26]

Nava Bharat, Nai Duniya, Rajasthan Patrika,raj express Dainik Bhaskar and Dainik Jagran are the leading Hindi newspapers. Other local newspapers are published in the cities. In English, Times of India, Hindustan Times, central chronicle and Free Press have editions from Bhopal. Urdu journals are common in Bhopal. Nadeem, the oldest Urdu newspaper of the state, is published from Bhopal. Urdu Action and Haq-o-Insaf are also published. Farz, a Sindhi daily, is published from Bhopal is the only Sindhi newspaper in state.

Government and politics[edit]
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Main articles: Government of Madhya Pradesh and Legislative Assembly of Madhya Pradesh

Atal Behari Vajpayee, the 10th Prime Minister of India, was born in Gwalior
Madhya Pradesh has a 230-seat state legislative assembly. The state also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) and 11 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House). The constitutional head of the state is the Governor, appointed by the President of India. The executionary powers lie with the Chief Minister, who is the elected leader of the state legislature. As of 2012, the current governor is Ram Naresh Yadav, and the chief minister is Shivraj Singh Chouhan of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress. Unlike in many of the neighbouring states, the small or regional parties have not had much success in the state elections. In the November 2008 state elections, the BJP won an absolute majority of 143 seats, defeating Congress which won 71 seats. Bahujan Samaj Party is the third major party in the state legislature, with 7 seats.

See also: List of Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh and List of Governors of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 51 Districts, which are grouped into 10 divisions.

[hide] v t e
State of Madhya Pradesh Seal of Madhya Pradesh.png
Capital: Bhopal
State symbols
Animal: Barasingha Bird: Dudhraj Fish: Mahseer Flower: Lily River: Narmada Tree: Banyan
Governors Chief Ministers Legislative Assembly Raj Bhavan High Court Police
Bhopal Morena Gwalior Indore Jabalpur Hoshangabad Rewa Sagar Shahdol Ujjain
Agar Alirajpur Anuppur Ashoknagar Balaghat Barwani Betul Bhind Bhopal Burhanpur Chhatarpur Chhindwara Damoh Datia Dewas Dhar Dindori Guna Gwalior Harda Hoshangabad Indore Jabalpur Jhabua Katni Khandwa Mandla Mandsaur Morena Narsinghpur Neemuch Panna Raisen Rajgarh Ratlam Rewa Sagar Satna Sehore Seoni Shahdol Sidhi Singrauli Shajapur Sheopur Shivpuri Tikamgarh Ujjain Umaria Vidisha
Major cities
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur Ujjain Sagar Rewa
As of 2013, the state has 51 jila (district) panchayats, 313 janpad panchayats/blocks, and 23043 gram (village) panchayats. The municipalities in the state include 14 Nagar Nigams, 86 Nagar Palikas and 238 Nagar Panchayats.[28]

See also: List of cities in Madhya Pradesh by population
See also: List of Engineering Colleges in Madhya Pradesh

Exams at the Mahatma Gandhi Seva Ashram, Jaura
According to the 2011 census, Madhya Pradesh had a literacy rate of 70.60%. According to the 2009–10 figures, the state had 105,592 primary schools, 6,352 high schools and 5,161 higher secondary schools. The state has 208 engineering & architecture colleges, 208 management institutes and 12 medical colleges.[26]

The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India including Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (Bhopal), IIM Indore, IIT Indore, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology(Bhopal), IIITDM Jabalpur and IIITM Gwalior, SPA Bhopal, IIFM (Bhopal), National Law Institute University (Bhopal), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (Bhopal).The state also has a veterinary science university (Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University, Jabalpur) with three constituent colleges at Jabalpur, Mhow and Rewa.

There are 500-degree colleges, which are affiliated with one of the universities in the state. These universities include Jawaharlal Nehru Agriculture University, Madhya Pradesh Veterinary Sciences University, Madhya Pradesh Medical University, Rajiv Gandhi Technical University Bhopal, Awadhesh Pratap Singh University Rewa, Barkatullah University (bhopal university), Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Indore, Rani Durgavati University Jabalpur, Vikram University Ujjain, Jiwaji University Gwalior, Dr Hari Singh Gaur University (Sagar University) and the Indira Gandhi National Tribal University (Amarkantak, Anuppur), Sri Satya Sai University of Technology & Medical Science Sehore,Ram Krishn foundation university (bhopal ) Ordnance Factories, Makhanlal chaturvedi rashtriya patrakarita university (bhopal ).

Cricket, football, basketball, volleyball, cycling, swimming, trekking, badminton and table tennis are the popular outdoor activities in the state. Traditional games like Kho kho, Gulli Danda, Pittu Garam/Sitoliya and Langdi are popular in the rural areas.

Aishbagh Stadium, Bhopal is the home ground for World Series Hockey team Bhopal Badshahs. The state has a football team that participates in the Santosh Trophy.

There are three International cricket stadiums in state – Nehru Stadium, Indore, Roop Singh Stadium (Gwalior) and Holkar Cricket Stadium (Indore). Madhya Pradesh's best performances in Ranji Trophy was in 1998–99, when the Chandrakant Pandit-led team ended as the runner-up. Its predecessor, the Indore-based Holkar cricket team, won the Ranji Trophy four times.

Ishwar Pandey from Rewa selected for Indian Cricket Team in December 2013
Landon Hand shared We Are Anonymous's photo.
at Jul 25, 2014 4:07:03 PM
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>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> TRUTH <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<


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TO THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT... The People Know and more are being informed!

1) Monsanto

2) Fluoride in our Water:

The Full Scientific Facts:

3) Haarp:

4) 911 was an inside job.

5) False Flags:

6) Crisis Actors:;topicseen

7) Police Brutality:

8) FEMA Camps

9) Bilderberg Group:

10) Serco: (Serpent Company).

11) Silencing Whistlblowers

Julian Assange:

Bradley (Chelsea) Manning:

Edward Snowden:

12) Killing Activists

(R.I.P) Aaron Swartz:

(R.I.P) Rachel Corrie:
Israeli bulldozer driver murders American peace activist:

13) False Accusations against Anonymous

We are NOT Terrorists.

You cannot dismantle an idea:

14) Lost or Stolen Trillions of Dollars:

15) The US Spying on the World:



All Social Media Platforms on US Soil Assisting:

They did not have this dinner for nothing.

Social Media Platforms:

16) Martial Law

17) NWO (New World Order):

What is is Zionist?

Someone who has NO GOD and worships material Possessions and cares only about themselves and immediate family.


Food That Kills - Full Presentation:

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We Are Anonymous
Maulidiyah Putri
at Jul 25, 2014 3:57:40 PM
[PROFILE + FAKTA] Goo Hye Sun / Koo Hye Sun (Gu Hye Seon)

Nama : Koo Hye Sun / Gu Hye Seon (구혜선)
Nama China : Ju Hui Shan (具惠善)
Profesi : Aktris, Penyanyi, Penulis, Sutradara, Pelukis & Model
TTL : Incheon, Korea Selatan. 09 Nov 1984
Tinggi : 163cm
Berat : 42kg
Zodiak : Scorpio
Gol.Darah : A
Agensi : YG Entertainment
Tahun Aktif : 2004-Sekarang
Web : YG Entertainment


The Hospice for the Children Who Live For Today (SBS, 2012) as Narasi
Absolute Boyfriend (FTV, 2012) as Guan Xiao Fei 官筱菲 (Izawa Riiko)
Take Care of Us, Captain (SBS, 2012) as Han Da Jin
The Musical (SBS, 2011) as Go Eun Bi
Boys Before Flowers (KBS2, 2009) as Geum Jan Di
Strongest Chil Woo (KBS2, 2008) as Yoon So Yoon
The King and I (SBS, 2007) as Yoon So Hwa
Pure 19 (KBS1, 2006) as Yang Gukhwa
Ballad Of Suh Dong (SBS, 2005) as Eun Jin
Nonstop (MBC, 2005) as diri sendiri
Drama City (KBS2, 2004-2005) as Perawat (2004) & Yeong Ae (2005)

August Rush (cameo, 2007)

Variety Show
MBC Blue Night - Radio show (2011)
KBS Cool FM 89.1 Mhz - Radio show (2011)
Design Korea (2010)
The Han Love program (Okaido, Japan) (2010)
Doosan Bears Baseball Team - Ceremonial First Pitch (2010)
KBS "Invincible Saturday" (2010)
Cine Town Radio Show (2010)
KBS Talk Show “WinWin” (2010)
tvN Talk Show "Taxi" (2010)
Farenheit Fan Meeting (2010) Special Guest
Literature with a Voice (2009)
Discovery of Recitation (2009)
Lee Hana Peppermint Show (2009)
Doosan Bears Baseball Team - Ceremonial First Pitch (2007)
MTV Girls on Top (2007)
Yashimmanman - Ep 174 (2006)
Happy Together Friends - (2006)
X-Man #46 - Eps 102 & 103 (2005)

It's You (그건 너) (Single, 2013)
Seo In Guk - Were We Happy? (Pengarang Lagu, 2013)
Marry Me (Single, 2012)
Fly Again Ost. Take Care of Us, Captain (Pengarang Lagu, 2012)
Brown Hair (Single, 2010)
Ku Hye-sun's Sketchbook - Breathe (Album Instrumental) (2009)
Sarang Ga (Love Story) Ost. Pure in Heart / Pure 19 (2006)
Happy Birthday To You Ost. Nonstop 5 (2005)

Model MV
Seo In Guk - With Laughter or With Tears / I Smiled and Then Cried (Model , 2013)
Brown Hair Official MV (2010)
Fahrenheit – Touch Your Heart (2010)
Kim Ji Eun – Yesterday is Different from Today (2007)
Soul Star – Will Forget (2006)
Im Taebin – The Reason I Close My Eyes (2004)
Sung Si Kyeong – We Quite Match Well (2002)


01. Hye Sun menamai anjing peliharaannya dengan nama makanan seperti Kkong Chi (Mackeral), Bab (Nasi), Jjang Ah Chi (Acar), Soon Dae (Sosis), dan Mandoo (Dumpling/ Kue Bola).

02. Hye Sun pernah diberitakan meninggal bunuh diri.

03. Goo Hye Sun pernah menawari Lee Min Ho peran dalam film garapannya tapi ditolak oleh oppa, karena oppa belum siap diperintah ama Hye Sun.

04. Hye Sun adalah jenis orang yang ketika ia memutuskan untuk melakukan sesuatu, ia memaksa dirinya untuk giat berusaha dalam waktu singkat. Maksudnya jika ia butuh waktu 100 hari untuk menggambar, ia sebenarnya tipe orang yang akan bermain dalam sembilan puluh sembilan hari dan berkonsentrasi selama satu hari hanya untuk menggambar. Metode dia adalah untuk memaksakan ketika perasaan itu datang.

05. Ibu Hye Sun selalu khawatir akan sifat pemalas putrinya itu.

06. Pada Jumat, 13 Juli 2012 Hye Sun pernah terpilih sebagai Artis Wanita Terbaik oleh Grup pendidikan Internet, SEVENDUM. Hye Sun mendapatkan 118 suara diikuti oleh anggota girlband Rainbow, Jae Kyung.

07. Hye Sun diterima di Universitas Sunkyunkwan pada Oktober 2010. (Universitas Sungkyunkwan adalah salah satu universitas bersejarah di Korea.)

08. Hye Jun berada dalam urutan terdepan dari seluruh siswa jurusan di angkatannya yang berjumlah 52 orang.

09. Atas pretasinya itu Hye Sun mendapatkan Beasiswa tapi ditolaknya dan menyumbangkan beasiswanya itu ke mahasiswa lain yang lebih membutuhkan.

10. Hye Sun pernah dituduh menghina suatu agama. Netizen menulis kalo "Dulu, saat Goo Hye Sun syuting, ia mengira bahwa Bunda Maria, ibunda Yesus, sama dengan Mary Magdalene, seorang pelacur". Tapi Hye Sun tidak tinggal diam lalu mengambil jalur hukum.

11. Tango adalah Novel karya pertama Hye Sun yang menjadi salah satu buku terlaris, yang mencapai 30.000 eksemplar dalam seminggu.

12. Goo Hye Sun adalah aktris multi talenta yang dikenal tidak hanya di korea melainkan dibeberapa negara di Asia lewat beberapa film yang diperaninya.

13. Lewat aktingnya di Pure 19, Hye Sun mendapat penghargaan rokie KBS Drama Awards: Best New Actress Award.

14. Awalnya Hye Sun mendapat popularitas sebagai Ulzzang (best face) di internet sebelum bergabung dengan agensi YG Entertainment.

15. Hye Sun pernah menjadi MC dari acara musik Inkigayo bersama dengan Heechul "Super Junior" mulai dari 23 April 2006-18 Februari 2007.

16. Hangul untuk Goo Hye Sun adalah 구혜선.

17. Hanja untuk Goo Hye Sun adalah 具惠善.

18. Hye Sun pertama kali tampil dilayar kaca dalam sebuah iklan Sambo Computer tahun 2002.

19. Hye Sun memulai debutnya sebagai Sutradara dalam sebuah film pendek yang berjudul The Cheerful Caretaker (The Madonna). Di film tersebut Hye Sun sekaligus merangkap sebagai penulis cerita, editor, dan penggubah musik.

20. Film pertama yang di Sutradarai Hye Sun berhasil menerima penghargaan Audience Award dan juga masuk ke dalam Pucheon International Fantastic Film Festifal 2009.

21. Tahun 2011, Hye Sun mendirikan Perusahaan film sendiri yang diberi nama Ku Hye-sun Film.

22. The Peach Tree adalah film pertama yang dibuat oleh perusahaan produksi yang baru didirikan oleh Hye Sun.

23. Keluarganya terdiri dari Ibu, Ayah, dan satu kakak perempuan.

24. Impian Hye Sun adalah menjadi seorang Penyanyi.

25. Hye Sun pernah menjadi pembawa acara di SBS Drama Award pada 2007.

26. Hye Sun juga sangat piawai bermain piano yang membuatnya merilis album "Breath". Yang terdiri dari 8 track yang semuanya instrumental piano, kecuali "Around The Corner" (yang dinyanyikan oleh penyanyi Gummy).

27. Debut pertama Hye Sun di dunia akting dilakoninya dalam serial televisi produksi KBS, Drama city pada tahun 2004.

28. Kalau sudah dapat pacar, Hye Sun akan langsung menikah.

29. Pada 27 Februari 2009, Hye Sun pernah mengalami kecelakaan mobil tapi untung tidak mengalami cedera yang parah & langsung dibawa Lee Min Ho ke RS yang kebetulan van Lee Min Ho lewat dilokasi kejadian. Dan karena peristiwa kecelakaan itu mulut Hye Sun harus dijahit.

30. Hye Sun pernah menjadi pembawa acara penghargaan SBS Drama Awards tahun 2007.

31. Hye Sun juga ikut mengisi soundtrack drama yang ia bintangi, seperti Fly Again (Ost. Take Care of Us, Captain), Sarang Ga (Ost. Pure in Heart / Pure 19), & Happy Birthday To You (Ost. Nonstop 5).

32. Hye Sun pernah ditawari porsi akting lebih banyak di film August Rush, tapi dia tolak dengan alasan jadwal syuting serialnya sudah cukup padat.

33. Debut MV pertama Hye Sun adalah We Quite Match Well milik penyanyi Sung Si Kyung.

34. Hye Sun pernah disiapkan YG Entertainment untuk menjadi salah satu grup trio bersama Sandara Park dan Park Bom 2NE1. Namun rencana itu dibatalkan, dan YG membentuk grup 2NE1 dengan memasukkan dua personel lain. Sedangkan Hye Sun difokuskan untuk bersolo karier di akting.

35. Hye Sun lebih menyukai pria yang lebih tua.

36. Jo In Sung adalah mentor Hye Sun di akting.

37. Di Boys Before Flowers, dia menggunakan make up minimalis yang membuat wajahnya tampak lima tahun lebih muda dari usia sebenarnya. Untuk serial ini pula dia memotong rambutnya yang panjang menjadi pendek untuk menyesuaikan perannya sebagai Geum Jan Di.

38. Beberapa sketsa coretan tangan di novel Tango dibuatnya di sela-sela syuting Boys Before Flowers.

39. 21 Juli 2013, Hye Sun merilis single-nya yang berjudul It's You (그건 너). Dimana Hye Sun yang menulis lirik sekaligus membuat lagu itu. Tapi Hye Sun juga tidak bekerja sendiri lantaran ia mengajak serta pianis Choi In Young untuk lagu tersebut.

40. Di album terbaru Seo In Guk, Hye Sun turut serta menyumbangkan kemampuannya dalam menciptakan lagu yang berjudul "Were We Happy?".

41. Selain itu Hye Sun juga menjadi model dalam MV Seo In Guk yang berjudul With Laughter or With Tears / I Smiled and Then Cried.

42. Hye Sun pernah terpilih sebagai Juri dalam Jecheon International Music and Film Festival 2013.

43. Di pernikahan Lee Bo Young dan Ji Sung, Hye Sung akan menyumbangkan suara merdunya dengan menyanyikan lagu barunya yang berjudul "It's You".

44. Lagu It's You merupakan digital single keempatnya.

45. Film Goo Hye Sun 'The Peachtree' tampil di New York Asian Film Festival 2013.

46. Di film 'The Peachtree', Hye Sun bukan hanya bertindak sebagai Sutradara tapi juga mengisi salah satu soundtrack-nya.

Cr: bwonchel.blogspot
 Afnie Bomie , Sakinah Ayu Puspita , Dhina Mayang Sari , Dhea Batubara , SiTy Asmah AjHa , Yafira Ciluydeck , Yanti Mayando Agung , Nindya Putri Fitria Mahmudah , Minsun KuHyesun Minsun , Risma Nurcahyani , Noni Bestfriend Illumination , Dhian Pertiwi , Siti Nurhidayati , Siddiqoh Sparkyu Elf , Septi Ciceweusilcayangmamah , Shavira Rosnah likes this
Risma Nurcahyani commented at Jul 25, 2014 4:12:01 PM
        Duhhh bangganya aku jadi fans hye sun.. Udh baik, ramah, tidak sombong pula.. Oh ya untuk no 10 jangan salah paham ya, itu cuma permainan media. Coba kalian pikirkan secara logika.. Masa hye sun mau jelek-jelekin agamanya sendiri.. Gk mungkin lah, makanya dia ambil jalur hukum karna tidak ingin masalah terlarut lama :)
Maulidiyah Putri commented at Jul 25, 2014 4:32:07 PM
        sip kalo soal itumah chingu.. ^^
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